- BioMed Central- BMC is an independent open access publisher that provides 300 peer review journals about biology, medicine, simulation medicine, technology, genome science, and public health.
- EthicShare - is for scholars in the field of ethics. Features everything from scholarly articles to blogs.
- MedlinePlus - produced by the National Library of Medicine for patients, providing reliable, up-to-date health information information about diseases, conditions, and wellness issues in non-technical language. Freely available.
- Nurses-Medscape - free from WebMD targeted at nurses. POC information for drugs, diseases, procedures. Medscape Mobile available for iPhone/Pad, BlackBerry, Android. See Medscape homepage for instructions
Searching via the Library catalog:
In addition to "Keyword" searching, click on the arrow (right of "Keyword" in box below) to find other choices from the drop down menu. For instance, select "Subject"to see all the nursing eBooks.
Grey literature is information not commercially published.
"Grey literature stands for manifold document types produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in print and electronic formats that are protected by intellectual property rights, of sufficient quality to be collected and preserved by library holdings or institutional repositories, but not controlled by commercial publishers i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body." (2nd International Conference for Grey Literature, 2010)
Specialized Information Services (SIS) US Dept. of Health & Human Services
Minority Health (SIS)
- Reports from government agencies (e.g., WHO or UNAIDS), organizations, societies, etc.
- Professional and Special Interest Groups
- Health Institutes
- Universities, Research Centers
- More Types of Grey Lit Documents - from Grey Lit International 2018
Objectives: "Expand visibility of timely and relevant Federal HIV policies, programs, and resources to the American public; ... increase use of new media tools to reach communities most at risk; increase knowledge about HIV and access to [services for high risk people]".
"AIDSource offers access to HIV/AIDS-related resources ... developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to ensure that those seeking information about HIV/AIDS have a source of quality reviewed current content [From both inside and outside the Federal Government]. In 2005, it was linked to AIDSinfo to make access easier for users of both sites".
HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Atlas (NCHHSTP) CDC
"A tool that gives you the power to analyze, map, and create tables using more than 10 years of data." For direct access, click on NCHHSTP Atlas.
The evidence based process originated in the field of medicine where it is referred to as Evidence Based Medince (EBM). The process has migrated into other professions which refer to it as Evidence Based Practice. In Nursing it is sometimes called Evidence Based Nursing (EBN).
Definition: Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is "the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research." Sackett, David L, et al. "Evidence Based Medicine: What It Is and What It Isn't." BMJ 1996; 312: 71-72.
4 components EBM (or EBP or EBN):
(1) clinical expertise and (2) patient preference which "may override the other components of the model for a given decision. "For example, clinical expertise must prevail if the nurse decides that the patient is too frail for a specific intervention that is otherwise âbestâ for his condition, and the patient's preference will dominate when he declines a treatment that [even though] (3) research evidence indicates the treatment is best for his condition. All of these factors, however, have to be considered in the light of the fact that (4) resources for health care are limited."
DiCenso A, Cullum N, Ciliska D. "Implementing evidence-based nursing: some misconceptions" [editorial]. Evidence-Based Nursing 1998 Apr;1:38-40.
This guide outlines the Systematic Review process starting with formulating a research question all the way along to reporting results. Simple to follow and relevant for other reviews, e.g., scoping reviews and intergrative reviews.
Joanna Briggs EBP
PubMed - filter for Systematic Reviews or RCT's by clicking on Clinical Queries (top right)
CINAHL - for EBM reviews, go to limit options; filter or add Sys. Rev., Meta Analysis, RCT, to the search.
Embase - a biomedical and pharmacological database
Web of Science
TRIP since 1997 - easily find the highest-quality material available on the web - to help support evidence based practice.
Finding and using research evidence: Summary sheet
Point of Care Tools
DynaMed & Up to Date Point of care tools offering best available evidence from systematic reviews, RCTs, and observational studies when appropriate for assessing the benefits and harms of treatments.
BMJ - offers critical reviews of research studies
Finding good resources involves not only selecting appropriate databases and websites, but also type of study design. Different study designs produce different levels of evidence are organzied hierarchically. See blue pyramid and note that study designs at the top, e.g., meta analysis, systematic review offer the highest level of evidence.
- How to Critically Appraise an Article - Medscape
- Critical Appraisal Skill Programme (CASP) Check out: Checklists & Useful Links
- Critical Appraisal Worksheets Duke University Medical Center Library
- Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step American Journal of Nursing
- Evidence Appraisal Winona State University
- Evidence Updates from BMJ
Do you need a refresher on how to present statistics? Visit lyndaCampus (access through Databases on the library homepage), create your free lynda account and learn how to use spreadsheet software.
Healthy People 2020 Structured Evidence Queries (National Library of Medicine) Ã¢ Provides specialized searches of the PubMed database to find research articles related to selected Healthy People 2020 objectives.
PubMed Health Services Research (HSR) Queries (National Library of Medicine) Ã¢ Provides specialized PubMed searches on healthcare quality and costs. (Change filter to Cost)
- CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Statistics & Data.
- CDC's Health United States - quick link
- CDC's Injury Center Injury Prevention & Control Focus includes: prescription drug overdose, child abuse, sexual violence, etc.
National Institutes of Health NIH (from the Department of Health and Human Services)
National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA (from National Institute of Health NIH)
HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Atlas (NCHHSTP) CDC
"A tool that gives you the power to analyze, map, and create tables using
more than 10 years of data." Click on NCHHSTP Atlas.
Kaiser Family Foundation KFF.org
Select 'Topics' on the horizonal tabs bar to discover site offerings, which include information on policy, cost, health reform, Medicare and Medicaid, etc. Explore the 'Perspectives' tab for policy insights.
Public Health Partners
A collaboration of U.S. government agencies, public health organizations and health sciences libraries. Global, Federal, State and County
SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS)
Stated mission is to produce evidence to make health care safer, higher quality, more accessible, equitable, and affordable
From the Admin. of Aging (AoA) at the U.S. Dept.or HHS, this site offers statistical and program information for this growing demographic.
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality HHS
Statistics gathered from over 100 U.S. government agencies
(Federal) Statistical Abstract (2012)
Provides statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. Sources from Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and other Federal agencies.
ICPSR (Inter-University Consortium for Political & Social Research)
Archive of digital social science data
Statistics from CIA World Factbook, OECD, WHO, World Bank, World Resources Institute, UNESCO and additional sources. Data presented graphically.
Though this is a partly a business site, it's not to be overlooked. It offers excellent quantitative data, statistics and demographics (US and International) and health information. On home page, click on United States (mid page - last tab) and also try Health & Pharmaceuticals in the search box.
Statistical Abstract of the United States 2012 (131 Edition)
Published from 1878 to 2012, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. Discontinued
U.S. Data and Statistics
Long an organized list of sources for federal government data.
See Global Public Health Guide for more data resources.
Aim of organization is to share the best in development policy, practice and research. Content from over 7,500 development organisations - all available free to download.
Institute of Developmental Studies (IDS) | University of Sussex
Global institution producing various materials â journal articles, research and evidence reports, policy and rapid response briefings, and working papers.
UNICEF Data - Child Statistics
Links to statistics globally and by country
Links to data and research, countries, projects and more.
Includes links to burden of disease statistics. Under the Data tab > Highlights > check out Data collection & analysis tools
National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (2008)
Survey of RNs reports personal, professional, employment characteristics of RNs living in the U.S. Conducted every 4 years.
Systematic vs. Scoping vs. Integrative Review Duquesne University
Munn Z, P., etal. (2018) Systematic review or scoping review? Guidance for authors when choosing between a systematic or scoping review approach. BMC Med Res Methodol. 19;18(1):143. doi: 10.1186/s12874-018-0611-x.
Typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies (Grant & Booth, 2009)
Part 2 Chapter 4 Searching for and selecting studies Cochrane Handbook for SR’s of Interventions
Some things to keep in mind when formulating your search (Tufts Uni.):
Does the database use a controlled vocabulary or just keywords? If so use both.
Make a list or table of terms to express your concepts and the synonyms for each.
Combining Concepts and Terms
- ‘AND’ different concepts
- ‘OR’ synonyms for a concept.
When using keywords think about using truncation (*); plurals; abbreviations; and alternate spellings
Translating a Search into Multiple Health Science Databases (U of Dalh.)
Health Sciences Search Terms & Filters (U of AB)
- Saving Search Strategies and Results in Primary Excel Workbook for SR PIECES Workbook
- Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews
- Equator network – check out other tabs on this website, e.g. Toolkits > Selecting reporting guideline
- PRISMA Flow Diagram (Flow Diagram is 2nd part of the PRISMA statement
- Excel Search Results Chart (Tufts University Sys. Review page - Downloads box)
Any researcher can register a protocol. If a publication or agency does not require one, submitting one is optional, but writing one as part of the process is fundamental. It helps plan and specify how you will navigate the systematic review process and stay on course.
Systematic Reviews Protocols and Protocol Registries – National Institutes of Health (NIH)
To the left of the page are links to tips - Document Your Work and Literature Search: Databases & Gray Literature
Protocol Worksheet – University of Iowa Libraries (Registration not necessary)
PRISMA P (Protocol)
Has my review already been done?
It's important to know this and to avoid duplication. In addition to checking protocol databases, search UM Libraries Databases Medline (in PubMed or OVID), CINAHL, PsycINFO, etc. – use limiters or filters to target only Systematic Reviews or by adding the term Systematic Review to your search.
Prospero is an international protocol database for systematic reviews in a variety of disciplines with “health related outcomes”. Through registration of review is helps avoid “duplication and enable comparison of reported review methods with what was planned in the protocol”.
Cochrane Library databases for high quality, independent evidence for healthcare decision-making.
Campbell Collaboration provides S.R.s in the social sciences.
DARE - from York University, UK| National Institute of Health Research (NHS)
Trip is a search engine lists publications of varying levels of evidence based research.
Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and other Knowledge Synthesis Guide & Processes (McGill University)
Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewer’s Manual
U of Adelaide (Describes steps for SRs of qualitative, quantitative, economic, text and
opinion based evidence.) Check the Appendices in each chapter for worksheets and guides.)
PRISMA Statement (Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) About page
PRISMA 2020 Checklist (The Checklist is 1 of 2 parts of “PRISMA Statement”. Click on the Checklist)
Cochrane Interactive Learning Modules UM Calder Library
Systematic Reviews: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) guidance for undertaking systematic reviews in health care U of York, UK (See Appendix 3: Documenting the search process)
Systematic Reviews: Skills to Develop Literature Searches, Manage Results and Evaluate Findings U of Pittsburgh | Health Sc Library System
Systematic Reviews: SR Process U of Washington | Health Science Library
Systematic Review Guide U of Texas
Scoping Reviews: what they are & how to them PDF
Scoping Reviews: what they are and how to do them Cochrane Training Videos
Scoping Reviews: what they are and how to do them Cochrane Training Slides
PRISMA-ScR – extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist
PRISMA for Scoping Reviews tip sheets and video
Joanna Briggs Institution Scoping Reviews Chapter 11
Current Best Practices for the Conduct of Scoping Reviews U of Toronto (super simple)
Scoping Review Guide U of Texas Library
1) On top bar, click on Evidence Based Care Sheets and Quick Lessons (under More), then type in the topic, condition, procedure.
2) In Advanced Search, type the topic (such as a condition, symptom, or clinical procedure), then select Publication Type and select Practice Guidelines in the limiter section,
Click on Guidelines menu in the top toolbar to search for guidelines. Search by organization name, specialty, or topic.
Before or after running a search (1) look to the left and (2) under Type of Article, (3) click Customize and (4) select Practice Guidelines (PG). PG will then show up in the listing above "Customize" - click on PG again.
DynaMed or UptoDate
Type in condition, procedure, etc., select one of the results. For additional information, look to the left under TOPIC OUTLINE.
From the Rand Health
HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS)
HIV Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services surveys (CHIPTS website) and
CHIPTS Project Database
HIV Patient-Assessed Report of Status and Experience (HIV-PARSE)
UM Libraries offer subscriptions to Citation Managers with the exception of Zotero (free). To create an account in one and learn more about it, see options below. They can also be accessed through the Databases A-Z list on the UM Libraries home page.
Always create accounts, using your Cane ID.
The words "citations" and "references" are synonymous
Both web-hosted & desktop versions
Desktop download from UM InformationTechnology > Services & Products tab > Software
TIP: in the first screen of Download, copy Product Key (will need later in the process)
- EndNote Guide > Use Quick start tab and For users tab > EndNote 20
- EndNote 20 Videos Endnote 19 Videos
- EndNote Help Index - list of links for specific functions
- Endnote Support If all else fails, this service is excellent.
Mendeley - both web-hosted and desktop. Also a PDF manager.
- Mendeley Desktop
- Mendeley Cite add-in: to export stored citations in Mendeley to a MS Word document ("cite while you write") In Mendeley > select Tools tab
- Mendeley Help Guides
- Mendeley Guide Quick
Zotero - both web-hosted and desktop. Can use any email address
Citation Managers (to the left) create the citations in the style you select. However, they are not always accurate and you have to check and correct using the resources below. In this section you will find information for both the new APA and the experienced APA users.
APA Style 7th Ed. What’s New
APA Style 7th Edition: The Changes You Need To Know
APA 7th Edition (2020) | The 17 Most Notable Changes
OWL APA Guide Purdue University
APA Documentation Guide University of Wisconsin Madison Writing Center
APA 7th Edition Supplimental Resources - Guidance for writing & submitting a manual in APA style.
APA Handouts and Guides
APA Sample Papers
Current editions are held in our reference collection, call number: BF76.7 .P83 2010 . An additional copy is kept at the Information and Research Assistance Desk on the 1st floor of Richter Library
- What is Plagiarism? Interactive game and guide.| Rutgers University.
- Plagiarism 101.
- Plagiarism: What it is and How to Recognize and Avoid It.
- Avoiding Plagiarism. OWL Purdue
- The Writer's Handbook to Avoiding Plagiarism. University of Wisconsin Writing Center.
Nurses hold four new arrivals to the Tule Lake, Calif., Japanese Relocation Center May 21, 1943.
Nurses from left to right are: Mary Nitta, Ruby Fujicki, Masako Nakadoi and Katsumi Ogawa. (AP Photo)
Bibliography adapted from Celebrating Nursing History: What to Keep by Margaret (Peg) Allen the list can be found at the Nursing and Allied Health Resource Section of the Medical Library Association.