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Equality: Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson Mandela.
Photos: Photographs from Haiti, by Maggie Steber.
Politics: What Does it Mean to be Black in America?
Graphic Novels/Comics: GraFight.
Sports: Black History in Sports.
Music: The Hi-De-Ho Man.
Film/TV: From Blackface to Black Faces.
Orichas: The Divine Orichas, by Alberto del Pozo.
Belief: Afro-Caribbean Beliefs.
Slavery: A Transatlantic Slave Economy.
Literature: Voiced in Ink.
Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that prevailed until the 1990s. Nelson Mandela was a prominent leader of his country’s anti-apartheid movement. He was arrested and served a prison term of twenty-seven years for his beliefs in racial equality. The book titled A Prisoner in the Garden is a compilation of original documents, letters, diaries, and photographs that build the narrative of his life in jail. Mandela was released on February 11, 1990, after mounting national and international pressures. Nelson Mandela and President F.W. de Klerk were recipients of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for officially ending the system of apartheid in South Africa. In Truth & Lies: Stories from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, the authors describe the hearings conducted by the commission under the leadership of Archbishop Desmond Tutu to investigate human rights violations under apartheid. The country held its first multiracial national election in 1994 and elected Nelson Mandela as South Africa’s first black president.
Martin Luther King Jr. and the March on Washington
August 28, 2013, marked the 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington, where civil rights leader, Martin Luther King Jr, delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. The now-famous speech on racial equality in the United States was delivered to a crowd of over 200,000 people. This historical event was the culmination of efforts by longtime civil rights activists and leaders such as A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin. The march was supported by a coalition of the Congress of Racial Equality (C.O.R.E), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (S.N.C.C.), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and the National Urban League.
- Dr. John O. and Marie Faulkner Brown Papers, Special Collections, University of Miami Libraries, Coral Gables, Florida.
- Edelstein, Jillian. Truth & Lies: Stories from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. New York: New Press, 2002.
- Kersten, Andrew E. A. Philip Randolph: A Life in the Vanguard. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007.
- King, Coretta S. My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.
- King, Martin L, and James M. Washington. I Have a Dream: Writings and Speeches That Changed the World. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992.
- Mandela, Nelson. A Prisoner in the Garden: The Nelson Mandela Foundation. New York: Viking Studio, 2006.
Dancing on Fire: Photographs From Haiti, by Maggie Steber, Jacket.
Peasant Family, May 1988
A Haitian peasant farm wife and her children pose proudly for a family portrait they requested in the small village of Duverger, near Fond des Nègres in southern Haiti.
Mother’s Funeral, November 1987
A young Haitian man struggles in grief at the funeral of his mother in the National Cemetery in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in November 1987. His family and friends try to hold him back from the coffin about to be placed into a crypt. The woman was one of hundreds of Haitians who died during pre-election violence leading up to the November 1987 presidential elections, the first in thirty years, following the fall of the Duvalier family dictatorship.
Moments Later, 1990
A Haitian policeman waits for an accused thief to reach shore at the harbor in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 1990, after the man was caught in middle of a robbery. Once the man’s foot touched shore, a second policeman at the side raised his rifle and shot the man, killing him on the spot. Justice and the lack of it has plagued Haiti for decades, and often takes place on the spot without charges or fair trials.
Dead Blue Man, November 1987
The body of a man sits in the alcove of a home along a well-traveled path in Carrefour, a poor neighborhood on the southern edge of Port-au-Prince, in November 1987, a few days before Haiti’s first democratic presidential elections in 30 years. All-night shooting sessions went on for several weeks prior to the elections. The unidentified killers displayed the corpse to warn people of their fate, if they voted in the elections. When Election Day arrived, the polls opened and closed in one hour after many people were massacred at polling stations. Elections were cancelled.
Ballot by Candlelight, December 1990
A Haitian voter in the Carrefour Feuille neighborhood of Port-au-Prince pores over a ballot showing the presidential and congressional candidates in the December 1990 elections. All over the country citizens lined up into the night, voting by candlelight and braving threats from drive-by thugs who shot into the crowds. Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a former priest, won the elections to assume power as president. Aristide was elected by better than 80% of the voting population.
Sulking on a Sunday Morning, May 2010
A Haitian boy sulks outside the makeshift plywood hut he shares with his family in a tent camp in the center of Port-au-Prince after his mother admonished him for not doing his chores in May 2010. He and as many as one million Haitians were left homeless following a massive earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010, killing over 350,000 people.
When Hunger Overcomes Fear, January 1986
In January 1986, riots and demonstrations against the Duvalier regime broke out throughout Haiti, especially in Cap-Haitien in the north. Following a full day of peaceful demonstrations over the high price of food, starving Haitians ransacked a huge food depot for CARE, a U.S. aid agency. People covered the building like ants on a piece of candy, despite the efforts of the Haitian Army and police to drive them back (as with a boy who tried to pull a box of food from beneath a shuttered door). One week later, the thirty-year Duvalier family dictatorship fell and Jean-Claude Duvalier fled with his family and loyal officers into exile with the help of the United States.
Jean-Rabel Jesus, May 1988
A small Haitian boy sits in front of a painting of Jesus on the porch of his house in Jean-Rabel.
Blue Lace Dress, December 1990
A young girl dancing in her blue lace dress belies the sinister poverty and violence that resides in the dusty barren streets of Rabato, a slum just outside Gonaives, Haiti. Rabato is a scene of regular political protest and is thus the target of numerous slaughters and attacks on its citizens. But on this day, there was only the singing and dancing of this young Haitian.
Philomène, May 1988
Philomène, a young Haitian schoolgirl, poses for a portrait against the school wall in her village of Beauchamps, in the dry northwest of Haiti in May 1988. Philomène embodies the singular beauty and pride of her people.
What does it mean to be black in America? This display case contains a contemporary and critical survey of topics such as race, gender, and racial identification through works by politicians, scholars, musicians, social critics, and more. The discussion ranges from symposia presented in Tavis Smiley’s The Covenant With Black America; to new media such as Twitter where ?uestlove, or Questlove, has become a popular voice; and from Touré’s discussion of “post-blackness” and the fluidity of racial identity, to Michelle Alexander’s argument that racism still exists but has been redesigned. The conversation is no longer solely about being black – there is a new emphasis on race based on gender roles.
- Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow : Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: [Jackson, TN]: New Press, 2012.
- Crocco, Margaret Smith, ed. Teaching the Levees: A Curriculum for Democratic Dialogue and Civic Engagement. New York: Teachers College Press, 2007.
- Dr. Cornel West at the Bank United Center for UM's 50th anniversary of desegregation. February 22, 2012.
- Questlove and Ben Greenman. Mo' Meta Blues: The World According to Questlove. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2013.
- hooks, bell. Ain't I a Woman : Black Women and Feminism. Boston, Mass: South End Press, 1981.
- Isoke, Zenzele. Urban Black Women and the Politics of Resistance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
- Lewis, John, Andrew Aydin, and Nate Powell, illus. March. Book One. Marietta, GA: Top Shelf Productions, 2013.
- McGruder, Aaron. All the Rage: The Boondocks Past and Present. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2007.
- President Barack Obama visting the University of Miami during his 2012 campaign for reelection. The Bank United Center, October 11, 2012.
- Smiley, Tavis, introduction. The Covenant with Black America. Chicago:Third World Press, 2006.
- Bendis, Brian M, Jonathan Hickman, Nick Spencer, Sara Pichelli, Salvador Larroca, and Clayton Crain. Ultimate Comics Spider-Man. New York: Marvel, 2012.
- Johnson, James W, Florence L. Bentley, Bois W. E. B. Du, Langston Hughes, Alice M. Dunbar-Nelson, Claude McKay, Zora N. Hurston, Robert W. Bagnall, Jean Toomer, James D. Corrothers, Paul L. Dunbar, Ethel M. Caution, Effie L. Newsome, Charles W. Chesnutt, Leila A. Pendleton, James E. Campbell, Frances E. W. Harper, Tom Pomplun, Lance Tooks, and Afua Richardson. African-American Classics. Mount Horeb, Wis: Eureka, 2011.
- Johns, Geoff, and Sciver E. Van. Green Lantern: Rebirth. New York: DC Comics, 2005.
- Johnson, Mat, Warren Pleece, and Clem Robins. Incognegro. New York: Vertigo/DC Comics, 2008.
- Laird, Roland O, Taneshia N. Laird, and Elihu Bey. Still I Rise: A Graphic History of African Americans. New York, NY: Sterling, 2009.
- Long, Mark, Colleen A. F. Venable, Erin Tobey, Jim Demonakos, and Nate Powell. The Silence of Our Friends. New York: First Second, 2012.
- McFarlane, Todd, and Greg Capullo. Spawn: Origins Collection. Berkeley, CA: Image Comics, 2009.
- McGregor, Don, Rich Buckler, Klaus Janson, and Tom Orzechowski. Essential the Black Panther. New York: Marvel Comics, 2012.
- Neri, Greg, and Randy DuBurke. Yummy: The Last Days of a Southside Shorty. New York: Lee & Low Books, 2010.
- Strömberg, Fredrik. Black Images in the Comics: A Visual History. Seattle, Wash.: Fantagraphics, 2003.
- Wein, Len, and Chris Claremont. Essential X-Men. New York: Marvel Pub, 2008. Print.
- Zimmerman, Dwight J, and Wayne Vansant. The Hammer and the Anvil: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the End of Slavery in America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2012.
A number of African-American athletes have emerged as trailblazers throughout the Hurricanes athletic department. Perhaps the best known of all is Raymond Bellamy. Just a few years after the campus’s integration, Bellamy became the first African-American football player to sign a scholarship for the Hurricanes. He later became the University’ first African-American student body president, and was tapped as a member of Iron Arrow.
Other significant achievements soon prevailed. In 1974, defensive lineman Rubin Carter was chosen for a college All-America team. In 1989, Frances Savage joined the women’s basketball team, where, among other honors, she became the only First-Team All-American player that the program has ever produced. She led the 1992 Lady Hurricanes during an amazing thirty game winning streak, and finished the season as a Sports Illustrated Player of the Year.
Another Lady Hurricane, Hall of Famer Gillian Russell, exemplifies the many successes of African-American athletes who have taken the lead in individual Hurricanes sports. In 2005, Russell, a world champion in track and field, was setting records. Let’s not forget John Hoyes II’s accomplishments in men’s tennis. He broke into the National Top-100, and was presented with the Sportsmanship Award at the State Closed Championships. Charles Johnson, who graduated that same year, brought us pride in another Track and Field event, becoming an all-conference, all-region, sectional state qualifier in the discus.
John Hoyes II, Men’s Tennis, Ibis Yearbook, 2005
The older of two children born in Miami, Florida, to Ana Supall-Hoyes and Dr. John Hoyes. He was a steady player for the Miami Hurricanes at the no. 6 spot with a 9-5 record in dual matches while posting an overall record of 14-5 in singles play. He also broke into the National Top-100 ranking at the no. 86 spot on February 24, 2005.
DeQuan Jones, Men’s Basketball, Ibis Yearbook, 2012
At the top of his game: Senior shooting guard DeQuan Jones dodges FSU’s Devon Bookert as he rushes down the court. Jones tied his career high with three assists during the game and ended with six points, four rebounds, and one block.
Hurricanes Track and Field Team, Ibis Yearbook, 1995
First row: Braxton Cosby, Amir Soleymani, Gary Hobbs, Maxwell Voce, Paul Island, and Michael Wise; second row: Ryan Dall, Julian Holt, Kevin Forde, Kevin Liu, and Jonathan Harris; third row: Damon Griffiths, Gerald Grappie, Wali Salahuddin, Ronald Thorne, and Davian Clarke; fourth row: Carlos Jones, Tim MacKenzie, and O’Neil Daley, Chris Miller, and Javier Taboas; fifth row: Ronald Pingaro, Bill Rotolante, Derrick Harris and Joe Niejelski.
Gillian Russell, Track and Field, Ibis Yearbook, 2005
An elegant runner and fierce competitor, Gillian Russell, a native of Kingston, Jamaica, won every event she entered.
Ray Bellamy, Iron Arrow Collection, 1968–1971
Ray Bellamy was the first African-American to sign a football scholarship for the University of Miami. In fact, Bellamy was the first African-American football athlete given a scholarship to a major university in the southeastern part of the United States. He later became UM’s first African-American student body president.
Jemile Weeks, Baseball, Ibis Yearbook, 2006
Second baseman Jemile Weeks of Orlando, Florida, followed in the footsteps of his brother Rickie Weeks, a second baseman for the Milwaukee Brewers, but he doesn’t let his brother’s fame get in the way of his own success on the field. In 2007, during a game against Georgia Tech, Jemile and Rickiy Weeks pulled off a beautiful double play to end an inning and shift momentum back to the ’Canes.
Women’s Soccer Team, Ibis Yearbook, 2011
The ladies of soccer: team effort pushed the ’Canes to a historic season. The women’s soccer team set high expectations with the success its players and coaches achieved in the 2011 season. The standard of play the team executed on the field resulted in an impressive record with only one loss, and qualified them for the NCCA Tournament for the first time in history.
Frances Savage, Women’s Basketball, University of Miami Basketball Magazine, 1989
All-American candidate Frances Savage led the Lady Hurricanes in points, rebounding, field goal percentage, and blocked shots during the 1989 campaign. In a game with Barry University, the junior forward from Fort Lauderdale grabs a rebound away from a defender.
Sean Taylor, Football, Ibis Yearbook, 2003
Spectacular. Sean Taylor (26), a safety on the Miami Hurricanes football team from 2001 to 2003, intersects a pass early in the first quarter against Ohio State in the Tostito’s Fiesta Bowl. Sean died in November 2007 at the age of 24 from a tragic shooting during an invasion of his Miami home.
Sebastian, University of Miami Mascot, Ibis Yearbook, 2010
Sebastian the Ibis raises a sign over his head proclaiming the ’Canes dominance over Florida football teams.
Amber Monroe, Shot Put, Ibis Yearbook, 2012
Inner Circle deep in concentration, freshman Amber Monroe lines up for her shot put throw. She placed third with 12.74 meters.
Samantha Williams, Long Jump, Ibis Yearbook, 2006
Jump to the front: At the Hurricane Invitational, senior Samantha Williams jumps through the air and into the sand, landing at the 5.75 meters mark and earning first place in the competition.
Leonard Conley, Football, Ibis Yearbook, 1989
Junior fullback Leonard Conley sweeps forward the sideline in order to pick up a first down. Conley averaged 58.7 yards in the nine games he played, barely edging out Steve McGuire as the team’s leading ball carrier.
Elan Daviglu, High Jump, Ibis Yearbook, 2005
Flying high: Freshman Elan Daviglus was second runner-up at the state championships with a jump of 6’8”.
Charles Johnson, Discus, Ibis Yearbook, 2005
Strength: Charles Johnson is an all-conference, all-region, sectional state qualifier in the discus.
Francheska Savage, Volleyball, Ibis Yearbook, 2005
Wonder woman: Francheska Savage leaps to slam the ball during a close match.
Women’s Basketball Team, Ibis Yearbook, 1982
Gwen Harris, Lisa Ehrman, Joyce Taylor, Jill Poorman, Kris Lichtenwalner, Robin Harmony, Sylvia Wilson, Donna Mapp, Carolyn McCarthy, Juli Pier, Dana Hunter, Deb Marshall, Loretta Harvey.
Chantz Mack, Baseball, Ibis Yearbook, 2012
While playing in the Miami Marlins ballpark, junior Chantz Mack hits the ball in grand fashion and gets ready to make his run.
Rubin Carter, Football, Historical Photograph Collection, University of Miami Archives, 1974
Ruben Carter was an All-American defensive lineman at the University of Miami as a senior in 1974. He was MVP of the 1975 Hula Bowl and was selected by Denver in the fifth round of the 1975 NFL Draft.
An American jazz singer, bandleader, and actor. Cab Calloway was a regular performer at the Cotton Club in Harlem, New York City, replacing Duke Ellington as the bandleader. He was most known for his scat singing (a precursor to beatboxing) and his high energy performances. He was also well known for the song “Minnie the Moocher” and became known as the “Hi-De-Ho Man.” Calloway went on to perform and star in musicals such as Porgy and Bess (1953) in which the character Sportin’ Life was based on him, Hello, Dolly! (1967), and The Pajama Game (1976). Later he went on to be a supporting character in The Blues Brothers (Universal Pictures, 1980).
- Bailey, Pearl, Cab Calloway, Gower Champion, Lucia Victor, Jerry Herman, Michael Stewart, and Thornton Wilder. Hello, Dolly!, 1967. Print.
- Breen, Robert, Alexander Smallens, Wolfgang Roth, Jed Mace, Eva Jessye, Ira Gershwin, George Gershwin, DuBose Heyward, and Dorothy Heyward. Porgy and Bess. , 1954. Print.
- The Cab Calloway Orchestra at The Cotton Club. New York, NY. 1931. Photograph
- Calloway, Cab. The Best of Cab Calloway: [20 Jumpin' & Jivin' Classics]. London, England: Hallmark Music & Entertainment, 1997. Sound recording.
- Calloway, Cab, Irving Mills, and Clarence Gaskill. Minnie the Moocher: The Ho De Ho Song. New York: Mills Music, 1931. Musical score.
- Calloway, Cab, LeVern Hutcherson, Leontyne Price, Urylee Leonardos, Leslie Scott, Georgia Burke, Alexander Smallens, Wolfgang Roth, Jed Mace, Eva Jessye, Ira Gershwin, George Gershwin, DuBose Heyward, and Dorothy Heyward. Porgy and Bess, 1953. Print.
- The Cotton Club. New York, Ny. 1934. Photograph.
- Landis, John, Robert K. Weiss, John Belushi, Dan Aykroyd, James Brown, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Carrie Fisher, Aretha Franklin, Henry Gibson, Steve Cropper, Donald Dunn, John Candy, Kathleen Freeman, Steve Lawrence, Stephen M. Katz, George Folsey, and Elmer Bernstein. The Blues Brothers. Universal City, CA: Universal, 2005.
- The Pajama Game. New York, N.Y: Playbill, 1973. Print.
- Stewart, Michael, Jerry Herman, Thornton Wilder, Gower Champion, Lucia Victor, Jean Rosenthal, Alfonso Cavaliere, David Merrick, Pearl Bailey, Cab Calloway, Ernestine Jackson, Marki Bey, Damon Evans, Tina Andrews, Howard Porter, Lillie Greenwood, Jim Watkins, and Nat Gales. Hello, Dolly!Saint Louis, Mo: St. Louis Municipal Opera, 1971. Print.
Black characters were once portrayed by white actors with blackface, and later were often featured in print as caricatures. The items in this case are intended to show how far the American media has come in terms of depicting race, and yet also provides evidence of room for growth.
- Daniels, Lee, Geoffrey Fletcher, Sarah Siegel-Magness, Gary Magness, Oprah Winfrey, Tyler Perry, Lisa Cortés, Tom Heller, Andrew Dunn, Mo'Nique, Paula Patton, Mariah Carey, Sherri Shepherd, Lenny Kravitz, Gabourey Sidibe, Mark G. Mathis, Joe Klotz, Mario Grigorov, Roshelle Berliner, Marina Draghici, and Sapphire. Precious (based on the Novel 'push' by Sapphire). Santa Monica, Calif: Lionsgate, 2010.
- Fishburne, Laurence, Cube Ice, Cuba Gooding, Angela Bassett, Morris Chestnut, John Singleton, and Steve Nicolaides. Boyz N the Hood. United States: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, 2003.
- Grant, Darren, Reuben Cannon, Kimberly Elise, Steve Harris, Shemar Moore, Tamara Taylor, Lisa Marcos, Cicely Tyson, David Claessen, Elvin D. Ross, and Tyler Perry. Diary of a Mad Black Woman. Santa Monica, Calif: Artisan Home Entertainment, 2005.
- Lee, Spike, Jon Kilik, Damon Wayans, Savion Glover, Jada P. Smith, Tommy Davidson, Michael Rapaport, Terence Blanchard, Ellen Kuras, and Sam Pollard. Bamboozled. California?: New Line Home Entertainment, 2001.
- Lee, Spike, Marvin Worth, Arnold Perl, Terence Blanchard, Denzel Washington, Angela Bassett, Albert Hall, Al Freeman, and Malcolm X. Malcolm X. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000.
- McCarthy, Peter, Carl Craig, Keenen I. Wayans, Bernie Casey, Jim Brown, Isaac Hayes, Ja'Net DuBois, Antonio Fargas, and David M. Frank. I'm Gonna Git You Sucka. New York, NY: MGM Home Entertainment Inc, 2001.
- Murphy, Eddie, Arsenio Hall, James E. Jones, John Amos, Madge Sinclair, Shari Headley, John Landis, Malcolm Campbell, George Folsey, Nile Rodgers, David Sheffield, Barry W. Blaustein, and Robert D. Wachs. Coming to America. Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 1999.
- Murphy, Eddie, Robert D. Wachs, Mark Lipsky, Richard Pryor, Redd Foxx, Della Reese, Arsenio Hall, Jasmine Guy, and Danny Aiello. Harlem Nights. Hollywood, Calif: Paramount, 2001.
- Singleton, John, Steve Nicolaides, Maya Angelou, Janet Jackson, Tupac Shakur, Regina King, and Joe Torry. Poetic Justice. Burbank, Calif.: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1998.
- Spielberg, Steven, Whoopi Goldberg, Danny Glover, Oprah Winfrey, and Alice Walker. The Color Purple. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 1997.
- Townsend, Robert, Keenen I. Wayans, Anne-Marie Johnson, and Helen Martin. Hollywood Shuffle. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2001.
- Van, Peebles M, Doug McHenry, George Jackson, Thomas L. Wright, Barry M. Cooper, Wesley Snipes, Ice-T, Judd Nelson, Allen Payne, and Chris Rock. New Jack City. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2005.
- White, Michael J, Scott Sanders, Jon Steingart, Steingart J. Weiner, Byron K. Minns, Tommy Davidson, Salli Richardson-Whitfield, and Adrian Younge. Black Dynamite. Culver City, Calif: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2010.
- Blinn, William, David L. Wolper, Stan Margulies, M C. Cohen, Ernest Kinoy, James Lee, Marvin J. Chomsky, John Erman, David Greene, Gilbert Moses, John Amos, Maya Angelou, Edward Asner, Lloyd Bridges, Georg S. Brown, LeVar Burton, Macdonald Carey, Olivia Cole, Gary Collins, Chuck Connors, Scat M. Crothers, Ji-Tu Cumbuka, Brad Davis, Sandy Duncan, Lynda D. George, Louis Gossett, Lorne Greene, Moses Gunn, George Hamilton, Hilly Hicks, Burl Ives, Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs, Carolyn Jones, Doug McClure, Ian McShane, Lynne Moody, Vic Morrow, Thalmus Rasulala, Robert Reed, Hari Rhodes, Richard Roundtree, Jacques R. St, John Schuck, Paul Shenar, O J. Simpson, Madge Sinclair, Beverly Todd, Cicely Tyson, Leslie Uggams, Ben Vereen, Ralph Waite, William Watson, Ren Woods, Stevan Larner, Joseph M. Wilcots, James T. Heckert, Peter Kirby, Neil Travis, Gerald Fried, Quincy Jones, and Alex Haley. Roots. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2007.
- Cosby, Bill. Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids: The Complete Series. Los Angeles, CA: Shout! Factory, 2013.
- Cosby, Bill, Phylicia Rashad, Malcolm-Jamal Warner, Keshia K. Pulliam, Lisa Bonet, Beauf S. Le, Tempestt Bledsoe, Jay Sandrich, Caryn Mandabach, Ed Weinberger, and Michael Leeson. The Cosby Show: Season 1. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Distributed by Urban Works Entertainment, 2005.
- Smith, Will, James Avery, and Janet Hubert-Whitten. Fresh Prince of Bel-Air: The Complete First Season. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2012.
- Stanis, BernNadette, Ralph Carter, Jimmie Walker, and Norman Lear. Good Times: The Complete Series, Seasons 1-6. Culver City, Calif: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2008.
- Sanford, Isabel, Sherman Hemsley, Roxie Roker, and Marla Gibbs. The Jeffersons: The Complete First Season. Culver City, Calif: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, 2002.
- Thomas, Ernest, Danielle Spencer-Fields, Haywood Nelson, Fred Berry, and Mabel King. What's Happening!!: The Complete Series. Culver City, Calif: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2008.
- Williams, Tyler J, Terry Crews, Tichina Arnold, Tequan Richmond, Imani Hakim, Chris Rock, and Ali LeRoi. Everybody Hates Chris: The First Season. Hollywood, Calif: Paramount Pictures, 2006.
- Wilson, Flip. The Best of the Flip Wilson Show. Burbank, Calif: Rhino Entertainment Co, 2007.
Yorkin, Bud, Norman Lear, Redd Foxx, and Demond Wilson. Sanford and Son: The First Season. United States: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, 2002.
In his drawings, Alberto del Pozo recreates the mythical attributes of several orichas. Each of the illustrations on view in the Otto G. Richter Library lobby depicts a god or goddess from Santería’s pantheon. The deities are shown in a peaceful pose, surrounded by artifacts symbolizing aspects of their personalities. Represented in each work is the image of the Catholic saint that corresponds to the oricha.
The origins of the Afro-Cuban orichas can be traced to the nineteenth century slave trade, when thousands of men, women, and children were taken from their Yoruba homes in Nigeria to be sold as slaves in the new world. Many were introduced to Catholic teachings, resulting in a blending of Yoruba and Christian beliefs over time. Due to structural similarities between the two religions, the Yoruba gods were juxtaposed with Catholic saints. This union gave rise to a new system of beliefs known as Lucumí or Santería, the “way of the saints.” This mixing of African and Catholic faiths has continued to attract practitioners.
The Campilli family, in honor of Carlos Campilli, generously donated Alberto del Pozo’s orichas to the Cuban Heritage Collection (CHC). These original illustrations, created in pen, ink, and crayon, are rich treasures of the CHC. They bring to life many of the orichas in the Santería pantheon, using color and pattern with brilliant effect. The orichas on exhibit are Oricha Oko, Inle, Orula, Oyá, Ochosi, Yewa, The Ibeyi, Ogún, Ochún, Osain, Changó, Ochumaré, Yemayá, Oba, and Echú Eleguá.
For more information or to view all of the orichas, please visit:
- OKO. Worshipped by women during the new moon, Oricha Oko is the god of agriculture and the harvest, and master of fertile lands and farm tools. In heaven he mediates in quarrels among the other gods. He is often shown sitting with a parasol in an ox cart.
- INLE. Also known as Erinle, this androgynous god lives in rivers and is one of Ochún’s lovers. He is the divine healer and god of medicine.
- ORULA. He is the father of time and lord of divination. His other names are Ifa and Orumbila. He owns ate ifa, the sacred board, and okuele, the sacred chain, which babalawos and yllalochas (priests and priestesses) must consult to view the future.
- OYÁ. Also known as Yansa, Oyá is Changó’s third wife. She is the goddess of the winds and of lightning and is mistress of the cemetery gates. Passionate and brave she fights by her husband’s side if needed. Her favorite offerings are papaya, eggplant and geraniums.
- OCHOSI. A great warrior, adored by women, Ochosi is the god of wild animals and the chase, who instructs hunters in the use of weapons. Inventor of the bow and arrow, these are his symbols.
- YEWA. Living in the cemetery, Yewa is the goddess of death and mistress of all souls. She is deeply respected and feared.
- THE IBEYI. These are Taibo and Kainde, the twin sons of Changó and Ochún. Princes of mischief, they sometimes disguise themselves as little girls. They represent fortune and good luck, and must always remain tied together to avoid losing their power.
- OGÚN. The blacksmith god of metal and war, Ogún is the implacable enemy of his brother, Changó. Whenever they meet they duel. He lives deep within the earth, and is represented by a three-footed pot with nine to twenty-one iron utensils that symbolize smithies and industry. The machete is also his symbol. A hard working and unforgiving god, Ogún must never be invoked in vain, and if lied to he punishes severely. He accepts offerings of tobacco, avocados and lamb.
- OCHÚN. The goddess of love and of money, Ochún is mistress of fresh waters. She is the ideal friend and solves all emotional and economic problems. She is one of Changó’s wives and mistress of the drums. Her messenger is the vulture. She is beautiful and vain and has never been seen to cry. She loves music and dancing, wears five gold bangles on her wrists, and holds a peacock feather fan.
- OSAIN. Osain is god of the jungle and all plants. He is short and is missing his left leg and right arm. He can only see out of one eye and hear out of one ear. His permission must be sought before picking any leaf, flower or herb, and if these are for preparing medicine sexual abstinence is also necessary. He smokes a pipe and appreciates offerings of tobacco, coins, and black feathered rosters.
- CHANGÓ. Extremely handsome, Changó is a fearless warrior. He is the god of thunder and fire and is notorious as a woman chaser and superb dancer. He is also a great seer and healer. The royal palm, which is the symbol of his divinity, is also his home and throne.
- OCHUMARÉ. Symbolizing peace and harmony, Ochumaré is the god of the rainbow, the link between heaven and earth.
- YEMAYÁ. Queen of the waters, Yemayá is the mother of all orichas. A siren at sea, on land she becomes an amazing beauty adorned with the manifold treasures of the deep. Her conduct is impeccable, and she is the ultimate protector of the faithful. Her messenger is a mouse and a serpent is her constant companion.
- OBA. Guardian of the hearth, Oba is the iyare, or first wife, of Changó. She is the legitimate landlady of all cemeteries. According to an old Yoruba tale, to guarantee Changó’s love for herself she cut off one of her ears and offered it to him to eat in an okra stew. He fled their home in horror. Obatalá gave her his white scarf in pity, so she could hide her missing ear.
- ECHÚ ELEGUÁ. Among the most ancient of the orichas he is the messenger of the gods, who forges roads, protects the house, and is heaven’s gate-keeper. In any ceremony he is invoked first. He owns all cowrie shells and is the god of luck. A prankster, Echú Eleguá frequently has a monkey and a black rooster by his side. Like a mischievous boy he enjoys gossip and must be pampered with offerings of toys, fruit, and candy.
Catholicism and Vodou are two of the primary religious practices in the Republic of Haiti. As the transatlantic slave trade took place, European missionaries sought to convert African slaves to Christian beliefs. The encounters of Catholic rituals with the West African ancestral spiritual beliefs have evolved in what is currently called Vodou.
Vodou is a syncretic religion practiced mainly in Haiti and in the Haitian diaspora. In the 1700s, Vodou became a source of resistance and unity against French rule. At the end of the last century, Vodou gained some acceptance under the 1987 Constitution and official recognition in 2003 under President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. Aristide is a former Catholic priest and a proponent of liberation theology, a Catholic social movement which espouses a “preferential option for the poor.”
Christianity in liberation theology delivers the poor from unjust economic, political, and social conditions, and, like Vodou, has been a vehicle for resistance and change. In Western popular culture, Vodou has erroneously become associated with Satanism and the use of “voodoo dolls,” practices that are not part of Haitian Vodou. For followers of both Catholicism and Vodou, spirituality is a way of life and a symbol of self-determination and autonomy.
- Bolívar Aróstegui, Natalia. Haiti, Fuego Sagrado. Matanzas: Ediciones Vigía, 2010.
- Heaven, Ross. Vodou Shaman: The Haitian Way of Healing and Power. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, 2003.
- Ohadike, Don C. Sacred Drums of Liberation: Religions and Music of Resistance in Africa and the Diaspora. Trenton N.J.: Africa World Press, 2007.
- Ramsey, Kate. The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2011.
- Rey, Terry. Our Lady of Class Struggle: The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Haiti. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1999.
- Rodman, Selden. Spirits of the Night: The Vaudun Gods of Haiti. Dallas, Texas: Spring Publications, 1992. Print.
- Steber, Maggie. President-elect Jean-Bertrand Aristide in doorway of his orphanage after firebombing of building and death of four boys. Photograph. January 1991.
- Steber, Maggie. Vodou priest wears spirit banner of St. Jacques as he prays before painting of Erzuli, Vodou goddess of love. Photograph. 1987.
Lydia Cabrera (1899-1991) was a Cuban anthropologist, writer and artist. Although she received no formal academic training in anthropology, Cabrera’s ethnographic research represents the most authoritative study of Afro-Cuban culture and religions. Cabrera’s research was inspired by her original subjects, the Afro-Cuban servants of her household while growing up. Her most famous book, El Monte (The Wilderness), is an important text for practitioners of Afro-Cuban religions. Anaforuana, another of her groundbreaking works, describes the fraternal secret society of the Abakuá, one of the most secretive and misunderstood religious societies on the island. Cabrera left Cuba in 1960 following the 1959 revolution, eventually settling in Miami, Florida. The Lydia Cabrera Papers, 1910-1991 are held by the Cuban Heritage Collection of the University of Miami Libraries. With the exception of the pamphlet, all items in this case are from the Lydia Cabrera Papers, 1910-1991.
- Cabrera, Lydia. Anaforuana. Drawings. Folder 7. Lydia Cabrera Papers.
- Cabrera, Lydia. Anaforuana : Ritual Y Símbolos De La Iniciación En La Sociedad Secreta Abakuá. Folder 1. Lydia Cabrera Papers, Madrid, 1975.
- Cabrera, Lydia. Anago Lucumí Vocabulary, p. 241-293, Undated. Manuscript. Folder 6. Lydia Cabrera Papers.
- Cabrera, Lydia. Arere Mareken: La Reina. Facsimile. Folder 1. Lydia Cabrera Papers.
- Cabrera, Lydia. El Monte. La Habana, Cuba : Letras Cubanas, 1993.
- Govin, Silvia. Miscelanea Sobre Santeria. Pamphlet. Afrocuban religions : pamphlet collection.
- Tarafa, Josefina. La Laguna Sagrada De San Joaquín. Photographs. Folder 7. Lydia Cabrera Papers.
Human bondage has long been a part of the world’s history. The Caribbean Documents Collection (1699–1811) and the Slave Documents Collection (1778–1865) contain plantation records such as Slave Registers that record the European given names of slaves, their functions, their ages, color classifications, diseases, and their respective owners from the former colonial dependencies in the Caribbean. These documents are housed in the Special Collections department of the University of Miami Libraries and serve to authenticate the history of the region and deepen our understanding of the slave trade. These “business records” provide a much-needed piece in the puzzle to find traces of our African ancestors.
The registry featured in the case is a bill preventing the unlawful importations of slaves by any of the twenty-three colonial dependencies and overseas British territories. Plantation owners were required to complete a slave register every three years starting in 1812 pursuant to the passage of the Abolition of Slave Trade Act, passed in 1807, which made trading slaves from Africa to America and the British colonies and territories illegal. The use of slaves in the Caribbean helped to meet huge demands for sugar across in Britain and in Europe and secured England’s position as one of the wealthiest nations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Items on display are from the Slave Documents and Caribbean Documents Collections, University of Miami Libraries Special Collections
Slave Holder Allows Slave to Work for Pay, March 4, 1828
Manuscript slave document presenting a letter of agreement. Monroe County, March 4, 1828. The document spells out an agreement that allows a slave to work for pay. “The said Lettes Bland doth give her servant Black Jesse his liberty for the space of twelve months to work for himself by his paying her forty dollar in specie at the expiration of the said twelve months.” A notation on the verso indicates the sum was paid in full.
Letter Addressed the Fate of a Captured Slave, Maryland: circa 1822–1826
An autographed letter signed from the governor of Maryland regarding a captured slave on free soil. A letter from Stevens (1778–1860), governor of Maryland (1822–1826), to Philadelphia attorneys Brown and Morris in which Stevens refers to a request from the governor of Pennsylvania to arrest a Mr. Arnold Jacob for taking captive one Emory Sadler, a man of color. This action was viewed as contrary to an act of the Commonwealth of March 27, 1820. However, while Stevens acknowledges the illegality of taking a slave from free soil, and even admits Jacobs should be punished, he states that unless papers manumitting Sadler are presented, he can do nothing. This, in spite of a letter from Jacobs to Sadler’s mother that indicated he had freed Sadler. “This is liable to be revoked at any minute.” Stevens adds, “think not for a moment that I justify the conduct of Jacobs.”
Slave Document of Emancipation, June 24, 1793
The document gives freedom to a fourteen-year-old girl named Betsey Simons. No reason is given by Beverly Milnez, the former slave owner, for this somewhat unusual act of granting freedom to a fourteen-year-old child. Perhaps other family members were already free, and this act completed the process. Interestingly, the former owner left her mark, and not a signature.
A Manuscript Petition for New Trial to Secure Freedom, October 22, 1855
The document is a motion for a new trial for Negro Nan, or Nancy, to secure her freedom. Nan was the property of Robert B. Windsor, who died, but who was supposed to grant freedom for Nan in his will. However, Nan lost in the first trial. This motion outlines five reasons for a new trial, including an allegation that the jury was influenced by misrepresentations. The motion also declares that the jury’s verdict was in direct opposition to the evidence. The document appears to be signed by her attorney.
Slave Register, December 1, 1813
Conveyance of Coffee Grove Plantation Slaves in Clarendon Jamaica. Musgrave Bristo and Wastel Bristo Jr. Esq. to William Mitchell Esq.
This case features an assortment of prominent writers from Africa, North America, and the Caribbean. The works of fiction and poetry address issues that examine and comment on race relations, black female identity, immigration, and the articulation of “black art,” to name a few of the concepts that the writers explore.
- Baraka, Amiri, and William J. Harris. The Leroi Jones/Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2000.
- Danticat, Edwidge. Krik? Krak!, 1995.
- Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Modern Library, 1994.
- Morrison, Toni. Sula. New York: Vintage International, 2004.
- Soyinka, Wole. Of Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
- Walcott, Derek, and William Baer. Conversations with Derek Walcott. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996.
- Walker, Alice. The Color Purple. New York: Pocket Books, 1983.